Belov Alexey Viktorovich
Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor
Senior Research Fellow of the Center for the Study of the History of the Territory and Population of Russia at the Institute of Russian History of
Russian Academy of Sciences (IRH RAS), Moscow, Russia
e-mail: belovavhistpost@mail.ru


Abstract. Nowadays Moscow is one of the main theatrical centers of the world. It is no coincidence that the Bolshoi Theatre has been the symbol of the USSR and the Russian Federation on the world stage for over two hundred years. Russian drama, theatrical school, the skill of directors and performers are part and parcel of Russian culture and world culture. We got used to taking this for granted and cannot even consider the possibility of questioning this statement. But that is so far from the truth. In fact, Russia had gone a long way to establish its outstanding theater reputation, and Russian national theater had to follow a winding path of pitfalls and perils.
For the next two and a half centuries foreign theater pieces had been considered as something alien, with the potential audience restricted to a handful of connoisseurs. Self-sufficiency and general commercial success of such events was obviously out of the question. It took not just a lot of time, but also a joint effort of the state, entrepreneurs and theater enthusiasts and advocates to turn the tide and bring Russian theater to the state it currently enjoys. The fact that Moscow has become the capital of Russian theater is not a mere coincidence, but an important event in the cultural history of Russia. The role of Moscow in that case was two-fold, as was both a national center and the "second" official capital.
It meant that city officials and the Emperors of Russia made consistent and steadfast steps to establish theaters and related institutions in Moscow, which in the long run would evolve into a permanent theater community.
The paper shows the process of origin, formation and development of the theater in Moscow at the first (the least noticeable, but at the same time cornerstone) stage of its emergence; it also explores the mechanisms for the implementation of this process as well as the tools used by the state authorities to pursue the policy of theatrical construction. The paper also assesses the efficiency of these measures and analyses the challenges that the authorities and to face.
Keywords: theater, Russian city, urban culture, cultural construction, cultural policy, privilege, Directorate of Imperial Theaters, Russian National Theater, capital city, Moscow, Bolshoi Theater, Petrovsky Theater, Arbat Theater.
Grishina Nadezhda Grigorievna
Ph.D. in History
Researcher at the Research Institute (Military History)
Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
e-mail: paraska07@yandex.ru


Abstract. The articles focuses on the problem of dating the Cuman campaign of the Russian princes, led by Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, the Price of Kiev. This campaign is listed in a range of chronicles, including the Simeon Chronicle.
Analysis of the date of this event of Old Russian history was once made by N.G. Berezhkov in his study of the chronology of the Lavrentyev chronicle. The historian came to the conclusion that the date of the event in the source is wrong and offered his vision regarding its change in the Laurentian chronicle. However, his interpretation of the process of changing the original date of the event raises questions. In addition, the presence of inaccuracy in the dating of the event is observed not only in the Laurentian and Simeon chronicles, but also in the Ipatiev chronicle.
The article analyzes the textual and chronological features of the texts of the Lavrentievskaya, Ipatievskaya and Simeonovskaya chronicles to understand the causes of discrepancies in the dating of this event in the chronicles mentioned. It also shows how the process of transformation of the original date of the event could take place.
Keywords: Russian princes, Cumans, Russian chronicles, chronology, menology, source, protograph, textology.
Kislyakova Maria Yuryevna
Senior Lecturer of the Department of Russian and World History and Municipal Management
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: staraya.kolomna@mail.ru


Abstract. Agricultural land is the backbone of the country's food security. The lack of clarity in the legal regulation of agricultural land turnover impedes the rational use and sustainable development of agricultural producers. Based on archival materials, the article, examines the formation of legal regulation of agricultural land turnover in Russia since the early 1990s. The author analyzes the agrarian reform, which put an end to the kolkhoz-sovkhoz system of management, through the prism of the legal basis of the institution of private ownership of agricultural land. The focus of the article is on the evolution of forms of farming in rural areas, issues of denationalization of former collective farm and state farm lands, their further privatization. Despite the relative stabilization of land legislation in the first years of the new century and the formation of a whole system of legal regulation in this area, the issues of land ownership and land use, the terms of sale and purchase of agricultural land remain influenced by various negative factors directly related to the circumstances of the previous decade. Particularly fertile ground for the study of these phenomena is the capital region, characterized by increased dynamism of socio-economic development, a complex and diverse structure of land relations, a high level of intensification and specialization of agricultural production. The peculiarity of the geographical position, socio-economic and political role of the capital region allowed the author to judge with greater certainty about the peculiarities of regional development. The article assesses the economic and market reforms in the agricultural sector in the post-Soviet period. Land transformations carried out with the aim of implementing the “great land redistribution” of the Soviet heritage as soon as possible were not dictated by socio-economic reasons and therefore did not receive support from the overwhelming majority of the rural population.
Keywords: land and agrarian reform, agricultural land, reorganization of agricultural enterprises, land privatization, land share, land shares.
Ivanov Leonid Alekseevich
1st year PhD student
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Moscow, Russia
e-mail: Leo-1998@ya.ru

Stolyarova Alla Nikolaevna
PhD. Habil in Economics, Full Professor
State University of Humanities and Social Studies
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Kolomna; Moscow, Russia
e-mail: stolyarova2011@mail.ru


Abstract. The article examines the current state of the small and medium-sized business sector in Russia and considers special tax regimes for this sector.
Russian entrepreneurs are currently going through difficult times. After the shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Russian business was hit by a wave of sanctions, directly and indirectly affecting small and medium-sized businesses. The cost of borrowed funds has increased significantly, supply chains and sales of products have been disrupted, and support for software used for doing business has been discontinued. All this aggravated the already difficult situation for small and medium-sized businesses in Russia.
Currently, special tax regimes are one of the most popular measures to support small and medium-sized businesses. Nevertheless, entrepreneurs still feel a significant tax burden on their business. The negative impact of foreign economic factors puts many small businesses on the verge of bankruptcy. This leads to the need to amend Russian tax legislation.
The aim of the work is to analyze special tax regimes for small and medium-sized enterprises in Russia and assess the prospects for their development. The subject of the study is special tax regimes of the Russian Federation. The main method of scientific research was the search and analysis of statistical information. Methods of deduction and comparison were also used in the work.
The main result of the work was the analysis of the effectiveness of special tax regimes, which can be further used in the development and implementation of measures to support small and medium-sized businesses. The article may be useful to entrepreneurs who intend to use a special tax regime.
Keywords: taxes, special tax regimes, small and medium business, Russia.
Kalinina Olga Sergeevna
3rd year graduate student of the Faculty of Economics
State Educational Institution of Higher Education
“State University of Humanities and Social Studies”
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: olusya2002@mail.ru

Maksimova Yulia Yurievna
Ph.D. Associate Professor.
Acting Head of the Department of Management and Economics
State Educational Institution of Higher Education
“State University of Humanities and Social Studies”
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: guseva_u_u@mail.ru


Abstract. This article is devoted to the study of the consequences of coronavirus pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus, which has become one of the most serious challenges for the world economy and the demographic structure of the population. The purpose of the work is to identify the impact of the coronavirus on the prospects for economic growth, as well as on the demographic structure of the population. In accordance with the goal, the following tasks were formed: to analyze the state of demography in Russia after the pandemic, to assess the rate of spread of the coronavirus at present, to determine the consequences of COVID-19 for the economic and social spheres.
The pandemic has had a negative impact on all aspects of life, including health, economic stability and demographics. The most obvious consequence is an increase in mortality. The mortality rate from COVID-19 varies from country to country, but is generally higher than that of other respiratory diseases. This leads to an increase in the number of deaths and a change in the demographic structure of the population. In addition, the coronavirus crisis has led to serious disruptions in the structure of supply and demand. In the spring of 2020, the world economy was actually put on hold, factories stopped, the population in most countries was at home. When quarantines gradually began to be removed, the demand for many goods and services returned to the prequarantine level and could even exceed it somewhere. Factories and service providers did not keep up with this demand, and prices began to rise.
Russia's economy is gradually recovering from the pandemic. Despite the emergence of new strains of the virus and new infections, the country as a whole has adapted to living in a pandemic and responding to new emerging outbreaks. The issues of ensuring accelerated economic growth and maintaining the demographic situation in the country come to the fore.
The study revealed that in Russia, the most vulnerable category were people older than 65 years, the consequences of the pandemic led to an increase in mortality in this age group. COVID-19 also affected the economic sector: the suspension of production at factories and plants affected the structure of supply and demand. But despite the emergence of new strains of the virus and new infections, the country as a whole has adapted to life in a pandemic.
Keywords: pandemic, coronavirus, economic growth, demography, digitalization, online, population structure, prospects.
Terskova Irina Vladimirovna
1st year MA student of the Faculty of Economics
State Educational Institution of Higher Education
State University of Humanities and Social Studies
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: podarki76@mail.ru

Rusakovich Maria Vladimirovna
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor, Department of Management and Economics
State Educational Institution of Higher Education
State University of Humanities and Social Studies
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: m_rusakovich@mail.ru


Abstract. Performance is a key category of a market economy directly related to the achievement of the development goal of any economic entity.In the most general form, it is a quantitative ratio of the results of economic activity and the resources spent.The pursuit of efficiency is the most important task aimed at increasing the financial capacity of any organization in an ever-increasing competition, so considering this category as an integrated concept can significantly increase its sustainability and competitiveness.
The traditional approach to assessing performance is based on the analysis of the use of the productive potential of the organization, i.e. the assessment of basic and current production funds, the analysis of labor resources and financial potential.The impact on these components regulates the cost of production, goods or services and the level of income of the enterprise.Particular attention should be paid to the functional areas of the organization's activities when assessing efficiency in modern conditions.One of the areas of improving the efficiency of the enterprise at the current stage is a franchise.This approach to business has advantages for both sides - for franchisees and franchisors.The first has the opportunity to spread its network, expand the influence and fame of the brand, and the second gets a ready-made business with an already familiar brand, available technologies and a created development strategy.This increases the franchisee's interest in development, as all income it receives (minus royalties) will pass to it.
For a trading enterprise, the efficiency of activities, its development and success in the consumer market are determined by the volume and structure of retail trade turnover, the level of trade surcharge, the efficiency of using fixed assets and working capital, etc.
Keywords: efficiency, comprehensive analysis, performance indicators, pricing policy, factor analysis, profit, profitability.
Bednarskaya Larisa Dmitrievna
PhD, Habil. in Linguistics, Full Professor
Professor of the Department of Russian at the Institute of Philology
Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev
Orel, Russia
e-mail: bednarskaya.l.d@mail.ru


Abstract. The article focuses on the theoretical ambiguities originating from the "Russian grammar" of M.V. Lomonosov, who declared the phrase to be the basic unit of syntax as a system of language. This point of view has migrated to all modern theoretical research. The purpose of the article is to theoretically distinguish between nominative and relational semantics of words and sentences, as well as tasks that will help answer the following questions: What is the basis of communication – a word, phrase or sentence? What is the basic structure of the language model? What is the grammatical nature of the phrase? Is it closer to a word or a sentence? Can the phrase be the original unit in the description of the language system? These tasks are solved from the point of view of the fact that the language includes three components – the language system – language activity – speech, on this basis, conclusions are drawn that the phrase cannot be considered a unit of the language system, especially the main one. In the act of thinking, the potentially integrative relations between objects of reality are first realized, which in linguistic reflection turn into syntactic relations. Acquiring a linguistic form of expression that combines multivalued, diffuse potentials of syntactic forms and meanings, they are formalized by relatives, turning into a syntactic value. A typical meaning that has received a linguistic form gives rise to awareness of new more specific relationships – it gives life to new meanings and forms. Awareness of relationships is primary, and they are formalized in the proposal even in the process of nomination. Calling the subject for the first time, the subject connects the relationship between itself and the word-label as an object of naming with the help of a connector, the process of nomination is predicative, which is confirmed by the nature of metaphors, nominative sentences, numerous transitional structures that combine the features of nominative and relational semantics.
Keywords: syntactic relations in a sentence; morphological and lexical design of syntactic relations; sentence – a member of the sentence – a phrase.
Stepanova Natalia Yuryevna
PhD. in Linguistics
Associate Professor of the Department of Linguistics and Cross-Cultural Communication
State University of Humanities and Social Studies
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: stepanovany@yandex.ru


Abstract. The article focuses on the peculiarities of the implementation of various functions of charactonyms in the trilogy of J. R. R. Tolkien “The Lord of the Rings”, as well as the identification of a correlation between the designated functions and methods of translating the names from English to Russian in the translation by V. Muravyov and A. Kistyakovsky in comparison with other published translations. The subject of the study are the anthroponyms in J. R. R. Tolkien’s, trilogy “The Lord of the Rings”. In the course of the study, 35 anthroponyms were identified from this work by the method of continuous sampling. The were used to designate various groups of characters: the names of hobbits, dwarves, members of the royal family, the names of heroes from the world of people, the main antagonist characters who have more or less semantic transparency, i.e. charactonyms. The author analyzes the etymology and hidden meanings of anthroponyms created by J. R. R. Tolkien, and concludes that proper names play a special role in the works of the genre "fantasy". The analysis has shown that the vast majority of anthroponyms in “The Lord of the Rings” are speakers. Leading functions of charactonyms in the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, according to the analysis, is a style-forming, genre-forming, allusive and behavioral characteristic function, the rarest is the sound imitation function. Identifying the function of an anthroponym in a piece of fiction is a determining factor when choosing a method of translation. Semantic translation of charactonyms allows the translator to reveal the inner motivation of the names, to bring them closer to the reader.
Keywords: onomastics, anthroponym, charactonyms, functions of charactonyms, semantic translation, J.R.R. Tolkien.
Chomutskaya Natalya Ivanovna
PhD. in Linguistics, Associate Professor,
Head of the Department of German and Romance Languages
and Methods of their Teaching,
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: khomutskaya.n@mail.ru


Abstract. This article is devoted to the analysis of the functioning in the vocabulary of modern German biblical expressions, which are fundamental in the perception of the world by native speakers and form certain elements of the formation of a national and universal conceptual picture of the world. The subject of the research are the words and phraseological units of biblical origin: meaning, (direct, metaphorical, symbolic), description in biblical subjects, structure, sematic fullness, belonging to a certain sphere of use. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the role and reasons for the relevance of the use of biblical studies in various spheres of public life, to show their "resuscitation" and the frequency of use, depending on the processes of social development. The relevance of the study is to systematize the selected biblical expressions of the German language, classify them according to structural and semantic characteristics, identify their distinctive features from other thematic groups of phraseological units, determine the prospects for further study of the specific layer of vocabulary of the modern German language. The main research methods are the method of continuous sampling from lexicographic sources, modern German-language media, the method of analysis, the method of comparison.
The main results of the study include data indicating the specific nature of biblical expressions, the peculiarities of their functioning and thematic orientation, the frequency of use, depending on the processes taking place in society. The difference between biblical expressions and other phraseological units of the German language is that the concept of "biblical unit" includes not only phraseological units of biblical content that meet the norms of the formation of phraseological units, but also biblical units-words, thereby expanding this thematic group of phraseological units. Biblical units can come from the Bible or refer to it. This shows an element of creative activity of native speakers. Biblical expressions are widely used in colloquial speech, in speeches of politicians, in the media, while implementing a pragmatic function.
The results obtained in the course of the study can be used in lectures and seminars on lexicology and stylistics of the German language, in the development of elective courses related to the study of phraseological units of the German language or a highly specialized course related to the study of biblical studies, in classes on the practice of oral and written speech at the university, in writing articles, term papers and graduation thesis .
Keywords: phraseology, biblical expressions, semantics, structure, etymology, distinctive features

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