Nadezhda G. Grishina
Ph.D. in History
National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage
Moscow, Russia
e-mail: paraska07@yandex.ru


Abstract. The article discusses the phenomenon of historical memory and the practices of historical policy on the post-Soviet territory using the example of Belarus. It was extremely important for the USSR former republics to work out a national narrative that would contribute to the legitimation of the new government and consolidate the necessary iconic and symbolic images and value judgments in the collective consciousness. The post-Soviet territory often saw an appeal for the creation of victimized images, images of a martyr nation, where a pantheon of new heroes was created, who often carried out anti-Soviet and anti-Russian activities in the past. Interest to the works by the representatives of nationalist trends in social and scientific thought was revived. The article stresses the idea expressed by other researchers that school educational literature is the key channel to form stable images in the collective consciousness. A reconstruction of the modern official discourse of the Republic of Belarus was undertaken to reflect the Soviet past using educational literature. The analysis of textbooks on world history, the history of Belarus, and the history of the Great Patriotic War leads to the conclusion that the Soviet past is predominantly perceived positively. The October Revolution of 1917, the national policy of the USSR in the 1920s, socialist modernization, and post-war economic development received a positive assessment of Belarusian scholars. The history of the Great Patriotic War continues to be the key topos of the historical memory of the Republic of Belarus. Undoubtedly, textbooks reflect a discussion between the main directions in Belarusian scientific and sociopolitical thought – nationalism and Western Russianism. Meanwhile, the analysis of educational literature convinces us that the mechanisms of memory wars are not used to create a national narrative.
Keywords: historical memory, collective consciousness, national narrative, Belarusian textbooks, Soviet past.
Dmitry N. Peryshkov
Post-graduate student
State University of Humanities and Social Studies,
Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: pyoryshkoff@yandex.ru


Abstract. Nicholas the Wonderworker is one of the most revered saints in Russia. The sacred image of Nikola Mozhaisky is the original incarnation of the saint, which has become famous all over Russia. Russian princes worshipped him, and brides sought his intercession. Russian troops went on campaign under the auspices of Nikola Mozhaisky. According to the Truce of Deulino of 1618 between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, along with issues of territorial changes and succession to the throne, the fundamental issue was the return of the icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk captured by the Poles in Mozhaisk. The creation of the icon is associated with a legend according to which the saint appeared to the defenders of the city, thereby frightening the invaders. The full-length icon depicts the saint in an atypical statuary manner, with a sword and hail in his hands. The article examines controversial issues in the study of the icon and its origin. The appearance of the shrine is associated with the arrangement of the estate by Prince Andrei Dmitrievich Mozhaisky in early XV century.
Keywords: Nikola Mozhaisky, Mozhaisk, Prince Andrei Dmitrievich, Ivan Andreevich Mozhaisky.

Natalia P. Tanshina
Doctor of History (Dr. habil)
Professor at the Department of World History Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration;
Professor at the Department of Modern and Contemporary History of European and American Countries
Moscow Pedagogical State University
Moscow, Russia
e-mail: nata.tanshina@mail.ru


Acknowledgments: The article was prepared as part of the state task of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.

Abstract: The article aims to analyze the perception of Russia in the West as an «eternal Empire» striving for constant expansion. The foundations of this approach were largely formed during the era of the formation of the Russian centralized state, and the concept of “Moscow as the Third Rome”, formulated by the hegumen Philotheus of Pskov, was cited to substantiate Russia’s allegedly imperial ambitions. The ideas formulated by the hegumen Philotheus were evidence of the formation of the foundations of Russian national identity. Philotheus wrote about Moscow as “the Third Rome” and did not imply the idea of the might of the Moscow state, but spoke about the purity and correctness of the teachings of Moscow Christianity, about the only church free from both Latin and Greek heresies. However, the West often used these ideas for propaganda purposes, to expose the “imperialism” of Russians by attributing the desire for “messianic expansionism” to them. Based on the works by Western authors, both modern ones and those of the past centuries, the article concludes that the West, as a kind of hypothetical community, has always had and still has a Russia of its own. Despite all the changes that take place in Russia, the West tends to perceive it as a barbaric, despotic and expansionist power. Russia is always viewed as an empire, no matter if it is the Moscow state, the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union or modern Russia. The words of the famous English historian and philosopher A. Toynbee can serve as evidence of the immutability of the view of Russia: “Under the Hammer and Sickle, as under the Cross, Russia is still ‘Holy Russia’, and Moscow still ‘The Third Rome’”.
Keywords: “Moscow as the Third Rome” concept; hegumen Philotheus of Pskov, stereotypes of the perception of Russia in the West; historiography; imagology; Orthodoxy.
Alexander V. Cherepanov
Post-graduate student
Moscow Pedagogical State University
e-mail: aleks.1100@mail.ru


Abstract. The article aims to analyze the role of the inner-army opposition in the life of the Red Army at an early stage of the Soviet State, based on remaining personal evidence. The published materials are represented by items from private collections. A detailed analysis of primary sources helped to identify the reasons for the defeat of the inner-army opposition and to understand the essence of the charges brought against representatives of this ideological and political camp in the structure of the armed forces of the USSR. Moreover, the author introduces a lot of important material into scientific circulation, which will support the ongoing research in the area. During the period of repression, many representatives of the inner-army opposition died or were expelled from the army and party for anti-Soviet activities. As a result, not many sources have survived about the activities of the inner-army opposition. The second half of the 1920s is less studied than the 1930s. Interest in the activities of the inner-army opposition in the research community is significantly lower than that in the repression or military-technical aspects of various kinds. Therefore, the source material presented in the article allows us to take a different look at the events that took place in the Red Army in 1926–1928, and to assert with great confidence that the testimonies of the representatives of the inner-army opposition in 1928 were not as anti-governmental as it used to be stated.
Keywords: inner-army opposition, Military Political Academy named after N. Tolmachev, Trotskyism, ideological and political struggle, Red Army reform.
Andrey A. Shablin
PhD, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of Russian and World History and Municipal Management
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: shablin-63@mail.ru


Abstract. In 1667, a shipbuilding enterprise was founded in the village of Dedinovo on the Oka River, Kolomna District. By order of the Russian authorities, ships were built there for a year and a half under the guidance of Dutch craftsmen. The work comprised two stages: 1) from November 1667 to November 1668 three naval vessels and escort vessels were built, 2) from March to May 1669, during the completion stage, the constructed ships were finished and the damage was repaired after their wintering in Dedinovo.
There are various definitions of the shipbuilding enterprise operating in Dedinovo. A review of the construction process and its technical support shows that the entire first stage of work was accompanied by the delivery of various equipment and materials to the site, and the construction of small and large stationary forges, tar pits and barns. Thanks to this, at the end of the first stage of work, the enterprise in Dedinovo, which had originally been founded outdoors with no buildings on the site, turned into a small shipyard.
The article considers the source that has never been specifically used to study the issue – “The Expense Book for Ship Business”, which was kept by Ya. Poluekhtov in Dedinovo. The author uses the source to trace the way the shipbuilding enterprise in Dedinovo gradually acquired the features of a European-type shipyard at the end of 1667-1668, as well as to track the number of workers employed at the shipyard, determine their specialization and the number of days they were employed in shipbuilding.
Keywords: shipyard, “The Expense Book”, daily wage, working people, marine vessels.

Artyom S. Vasilyev
PhD in Economics
Associate Professor at the Department of Personnel Management and Labour Economics
Donetsk State University
Donetsk, DPR, Russia
e-mail: vasilievartem05@gmail.com


Abstract. The article presents a review of the labour market conditions of the Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR), the analysis of the dynamics of its changes, the assessment of employment and wage levels, and measures taken to promote employment. The author reveals the labour market problems, identifies the professions in-demand, and offers directions to develop the labour market and employment in the republic, to promote economic growth and improve the standard of living of the population.
The subject of the study is the conditions of the labour market and employment of the population of the DPR. The aim of the research is to identify problems of the labour market and employment and offer directions for their development in the DPR, based on the analysis of the dynamics and current situation.
The following methods were used during the research: analysis and synthesis, observation, description, comparison and generalization. The information is systematized on the basis of official data from the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, the Republican Employment Center, the DPR media, as well as other open sources that provide information with a certain degree of reliability.
The research concludes that the unemployment rate in the republic is decreasing, but there is an imbalance between the demand and supply of labour; average wages are growing steadily, though more slowly than in the neighboring regions. The republic faces a shortage of personnel in many sectors of economy, e.g. there is a special need for industrial and construction workers, personnel in the spheres of healthcare and provision of pensions. The republic is putting a lot of effort to ensure the effective functioning of the labour market and employment of the population. However, in the area under study there are a number of problems, the solution of which requires an integrated approach involving human and financial resources. The proposed directions for the development of the labour market and employment will contribute to the restoration and growth of the republic’s economy and improve the standard of living of the population.
Keywords: labour market, employment, job placement, professional training, labour resources, labour potential.
Tatyana V. Gotsko
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor
Associate Professor at the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: gotskotv@mail.ru

Yulia Yu. Maksimova
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor
Associate Professor at the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: guseva_u_u@mail.ru


Abstract. One of the priority areas for sustainable economic development is the formation of a “state for citizens,” which, in fact, is a means of responding adequately to changes in the socio-economic situation of the country and a key tool to achieve Russia’s national development goals. Thus, client-centricity in state (municipal) management is considered to be the most important means of solving citizens’ key problems under the conditions of limited resources. The main features of client-centricity in state (municipal) management are focus on citizens’ needs, integration with digital transformation, the formation of a unified organizational client-centric culture, the activation of feedback, and the consideration of risk factors. Mechanisms for implementing customer-centricity standards for each category are synchronized and focused on the development of budgeting.
The focus on customer centricity in the field of municipal finance management was enshrined in 2021 by the Budget Code of the Russian Federation, when the principle of “population participation in the budget process” was included in the list of principles of the budget system. Today, the following client-centric tools are most often used to manage municipal finances: public hearings, competitions for the best municipal practices, the formation of social orders, digital transformation of the budget process, proactive budgeting, intermunicipal cooperation, and treasury support.
Despite the generally recognized advantages of a client-centric approach to municipal finance management, when putting innovative tools into practice, it is necessary to take the risks into account. The most significant ones are the untimeliness and unreliability of information in government information systems; insufficient qualifications of the employees of local governments and municipal institutions; and the presence of strong bureaucratic traditions.
Key words: management, finance, client-centricity, state (municipal) services, digital transformation, budget, quality.
Artyom I. Ignatov
Senior Lecturer at the Department of
Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity Planning
Ryazan State University named after S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia
e-mail: a.ignatov@365.rsu.edu.ru

Vladimir S. Otto
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor
Dean of the Faculty of Economics
Ryazan State University named after S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia
e-mail: v.otto@365.rsu.edu.ru


Abstract. The article covers the issue of stock market dynamics in the Russian Federation and a number of foreign countries. The aim of the research is to identify development trends and compare national stock markets as part of the financial market.
On the one hand, financial markets in general act as a tool to invest free assets in a variety of financial instruments, on the other hand, they are a way to raise funds for entrepreneurs. In the capital market, companies can issue shares or bonds and sell them to investors to raise funds for business expansion, project financing, or other purposes. Companies typically work with investment banks or brokerage firms to make initial public offerings of stocks or corporate bonds on the stock market.
The relevance of the study is determined by the important role played by the stock market in the country’s economy, because under the conditions of limited access of Russian companies to global financial resources, the development of the stock market makes it possible to make the national economy more competitive at the global level.
The research relied on such methods as content analysis, comparison method, time series analysis, and structural analysis. Based on the results of the analysis of statistical data, the authors draw conclusions about the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the capitalization of public companies in all the countries studied, which is manifested in an increase in volatility and a decrease in stock indices.
One can also note a significant drop in the performance of the Russian stock market after the introduction of sanctions, as a result of which the domestic capital market in 2022 lagged behind foreign ones in its dynamics. However, after a sharp decline in 2023, there is a strong recovery.
Keywords: share market, stock market, stock exchange, corporate bonds, capitalization.
Alla N. Stolyarova
Doctor of Economics (Dr. habil)
Professor at the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: stolyarova2011@mail.ru


Abstract. Due to the development of technology and the globalization of the economy, logistics flows are becoming increasingly complex, which, in turn, affects the functioning of wholesale intermediaries in the market for goods and services. Modern changes in logistics, such as optimization of warehousing, introduction of e-commerce, use of new vehicles, improvement of goods tracking systems, and sanctions restrictions have a direct impact on the work of wholesale enterprises.
Wholesale intermediaries play an important role in the supply chain, ensuring the smooth and efficient flow of goods from manufacturers to retailers. Despite the fact that intermediaries may be different in nature: distributors, wholesalers, service providers and others, their role in ensuring the efficiency of logistics flows is essential for the successful functioning of market relations.
In addition, it should be noted that in the new business environment, wholesale intermediaries face the need to improve their processes and strategies to meet new requirements and consumer expectations, which includes the development of digital technologies to optimize distribution, inventory management, as well as increasing the efficiency and flexibility of the system supplies. The main task will be to identify and select the most effective distribution channels.
The selection and use of a particular distribution channel has a direct impact on product availability, customer satisfaction, and bottom line business results. Choosing the right distribution channel based on your specific business goals can expand your customer base, increase sales, and improve brand reputation.
In this regard, studying and understanding the features of the functioning of wholesale intermediaries in the context of changes in logistics flows helps to consider the issue in the light of current trends, which contributes to the formation of a full-fledged theoretical and practical research with the development of new strategies and methods that contribute to the effective activities of wholesalers in the context of digitalization.
Keywords: logistics flows, logistics tools, distribution channels, digitalization, distributors, business processes.
Irina P. Amzarakova
Doctor of Philology (Dr. habil), Associate Professor, Professor
Khakassian State University named after N.F. Katanov
Abakan, Republic of Khakassia, Russia
e-mail: ip50@mail.ru

Larisa Yu. Kulpina
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor
Pacific National University
Khabarovsk, Russia
e-mail: larisa_kulpina@pnu.edu.ru

Irina S. Mainagasheva
Senior Lecturer
Khakassian State University named after N.F. Katanov
Abakan, Republic of Khakassia, Russia
e-mail: mis.62@mail.ru


Abstract. The article examines the reception of Russia and Russians in German-language fictional discourse. The paper presents an overview of the studies of the image of Russia over the past two decades, identifying differences in the reflection of the image of Russia in fictional discourse, based on the example of literary journalistic and fictional texts. The authors summarize the factors determining the image of Russia in the public consciousness abroad.
The article aims to show the peculiarities of reflecting the image of Russia in the works of interlinguocultural authors, transmigrant authors and authors who came from the GDR, those who encountered Russian (Soviet) people and / or realias. The study uses a discourse approach, which allows us to take into account the broad context of the creation of a text and the conditions of its perception. The authors justify the use of the concepts of interlinguocultural linguistic personality and transcultural literature.
The empirical material includes works of German-language fiction published in Germany from 1997 to 2021. The method of continuous sampling from German works of art was applied to create a corpus of text fragments, which were subjected to interpretative and comparative analysis.
The article concludes that the change in the image of the country depends on the time and conditions of the creation of the text, establishes the parameters of the differences in the representation of the image of the country in fictional and institutional discourse, and identifies thematic blocks and linguistic means of representing the image of Russia and Russians in modern German fictional discourse.
The analysis of the image of Russia in foreign language fictional texts and the means of its linguistic actualization contributes to the development of intercultural competence and self-identification. The results of the research can be used in courses on intercultural communication, journalism, and in teaching linguistic subjects at departments of Philology.
Keywords: image of Russia, imagology, fictional discourse, literary journalism, German-language literature, interlinguocultural personality.

Zhou Haiyan
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor
Peking University, China
е-mail: hyzh906@pku.edu.cn


Abstract: The article provides a functional-semantic analysis of the homocomplex “давай” in independent use based on examples from the National Corpus of the Russian Language. In the syntactic aspect the word “давай” in independent use often fulfils the functions of etiquette interjections, denoting advice-proposal, inducement to action, consent and farewell. One can also observe “давай” with mixed semantics. From the point of view of V.V. Babaitseva’s theory of transitivity, the word “давай” in independent use is the result of grammaticalisation of the verb form, and the word “давай” in different meanings occupies different places on the scale of transitivity of grammaticalisation.
Keywords: ‘давай’, semantics, function, grammaticalisation, interjection.
Zhou Yufei
(People’s Republic of China)
Post-graduate Student at the Department of the Russian Language
Moscow Pedagogical State University
e-mail: fzyf9533@gmail.com


Abstract. The article is based on the analysis of definitions from encyclopedic dictionaries and scientific works devoted to the category of “diminutiveness”. It identifies the most relevant aspects of this issue, which have both theoretical and practical significance. The subject of the analysis is the diminutive forms of nouns. The article aims to identify the elements of this system which are not well-studied. The author draws conclusions from the analysis of somatisms, a universal lexico- semantic group, which is important for the formation of national worldviews. The author considers the issue of the linguistic status of diminutive forms in the system of names of body parts to be a key problem of scientific analysis. Special attention is paid to the ratio of objective (dimensional-evaluative) and subjective (emotionally expressive) meanings in the semantics of the diminutive. The status of the suffix in the word-forming structure of the diminutive form is also considered: whether it is a derivational suffix or an inflectional one, and whether it expresses modification or mutation value. The author uses the method of component analysis, contextual analysis, and the method of dictionary definitions analysis to conclude that the most promising areas in the study of diminutives are as follows: polysemy and closely related “lexicalization” of diminutive forms; the problem of the semantic relationship of the names of cubs and diminutives in the language and text; the description of diminutives in the context of various lexico-semantic groups; the analysis of word-formation models of diminutives, and detailed consideration of the cases of formal variation in the system. The problems discussed in the article are of practical importance: the author's observations and conclusions can be used both in translation practice and in teaching Russian as a foreign language.
Keywords: diminutive, endearment form, form of subjective evaluation, inflection, derivation, polysemy, lexicalization, lexico-semantic group, somatism.

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