Belov Alexey Viktorovich
Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor
Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences
e-mail: belovavhist@mail.ru

"City Reform" And "The Reform of the City" Of Catherine II: Goals and Outcomes of Two Complex Transformations of the Second Half of the 18th Century

Abstract. The reforms of Catherine II are exceptionally important not only because of their scale. These reforms resulted in a nation-wide structure of government authority based on the territorial and administrative principles. Having undergone numerous changes, this system largely survived until the present day. Thanks to the reform, the cities obtained a number of different executive structures instrumental for the implementation of a range of mandatory functions, which, in fact, were the requirement for the city status as it was understood by the people at the time. This process is traditionally associated with two reforms of Catherine II: administrative, or provincial, and the so-called city reform. Alongside with these transformations, the city had undergone a transformation and became the administrative center. It must be distinguished from the so-called city reform, which was not focused on the city as a place of concentration of functions. Rather, it was aimed at streamlining the structure of urban classes. Therefore, in Russian historiography, it was originally known under a broader and more accurate definition of ‘’social city reform’.

The present paper focuses on the state of cities at the beginning of the reform and the perspective for the modernization of cities. It also touches upon the difference between the social city reform and the reform of the city as the administrative center, with special attention being paid to its purposes. Another point in question is the emergence of city network, which was one of the outcomes of the reform. The author also focuses on the criteria of the city at the time.

The paper is based on the fundamental principles of scientific research: the principles of historicism, consistency and integrity. Alongside with that we employed such approaches as periodization, retrospective and comparative-historical.

The results of the study may be interesting for assessing the reforms of the second half of the 18th century, for the study of historical cities, analyzing the features of the functioning of administrative centers, as well as for evaluating the heritage of Catherine II, which continues to function today.

Keywords: reform of the city of Catherine II, city reform of Catherine II, city, urban settlement, urban network, network of cities and urban settlements, Russian city, city as the administrative center.

Vinogradov Mikhail Anatolyevich
Ph.D. in History
History teacher at secondary school № 1797 "Bogorodskaya"
e-mail: mavingrad@mail.ru

Marya Gavrilovna Kulikova, A Peasant Woman of Mozhaisk District: A Case of Historical and Biographical Reconstruction

Abstract. The article attempts to explore the biography of a Mozhaisk peasant woman Marya Kulikova, a serf to Count Uvarov and mother of Poretsky volost foreman Fedor Kulikov. The study focuses on a range of primary sources, most of which are represented by parish registers. The paper also relies on other sources, such as photographs and family memories, which a scarcely used by researchers. All these sources combined make it possible to reconstruct the milestones in the life of a 19th century peasant woman. Our primary mission was to clarify certain events in the life of Marya Kulikova, i.e. descent, marriage, occupation, social milieu and standing. These questions are rarely addressed by researchers, who tend to study this social strata. The presented paper makes it possible to come to several important conclusions. Firstly, we identified the most important events and periods of the life of Marya Kulikova. Secondly, we identified her social ties in the village and fiefdom (volost), as well as their development. Thirdly, we looked at the change in the social status of a peasant woman in the context of her son's career development. The data obtained in the course of our research can be used in publications on local history or the history of 19th century peasantry in Russia.
Key words: peasantry, serfdom, parish register, volost foreman, the Uvarovs.
Oskin Maxim Viktorovich
PhD Habil. in History
Professor of the Department of Philosophy, History and Theory of State and Law
ANO HE «International Police Academy ARPA», Tula, Russia
e-mail: maxozv@yandex.ru

Supply of the Moscow Military District in 1917: Provisioning In Rear Garrisons between February and October

Abstract. The food crisis of the winter of 1917 was the last link in the chain of events that led to the February Revolution. The armed forces, namely Imperial Russian Army, actively engaged in trench warfare of the First World War as well as the garrisons of the rear, stationed in towns and cities across the Empire were part and parcel of the revolutionary movement. Wide support in the army ensured and sealed the victory of the revolutionary forces. By 1917 the political stance and allegiance of the Imperial Russian Army in a vast majority of cases directly depended on the quality of supplies, which was true of both field forces and rear garrisons, with the latter being instrumental in encouraging the revolutionary processes. In the supply of food and forage, priority was predictably given to the field forces, however, the spread of the revolution showed, that the political stance of the rear garrisons can turn the tide for the revolutionaries. Moscow and Petrograd military districts took the lead in the involvement of the military in the political processes of the time and thus contributed to status of Moscow and Petrograd as the hotbeds of revolution. Further spread of the revolutionary movement into Russia’s heartland was backed by the most radicalized part of the army in the rear, i..e. the soldiery. Little wonder that the Bolsheviks, the political fraction that became increasingly popular after the October Revolution, were widely supported by the lower ranks. Reluctance to continue the war was fueled by both insufficient supplies and the anxiety of the soldiers, who, by and large, were nothing more but conscripted peasants, to be late for the carve-up of land was about to begin in their home villages. Aggravating food crisis was one of the results of a bigger nationwide crisis of autumn 1917, and, naturally, affected the morale of the soldiers in rear garrisons. In the end, food shortages and constantly diminishing food rations gave the troops of the rear garrisons no other option but to side with the bolsheviks, which in turn ensured the success of the October Revolution and the rapid spread of Soviet rule across the country.
Keywords: food supply, rear garrisons, Moscow military district, Ministry of Agriculture, requisitions, foragers.


Kolgushkin Aleksey Igorevich
Project Director of the Department for Real Estate Developers and Property
Management Companies of the "Center” Macro-Regional Branch
Senior Lecturer at the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: aleksey_kolgushkin@mail.ru

In-House Management Training as an Approach to Talent Pool Development

Abstract. The article explores a range of issues related to the aspects of in-house training, aimed at the creation of a managerial staff talent pool, which is essential for a modern company. Oftentimes CEO's and HR Officers cannot realistically assess the ability of their employees to meet the goals set by the company’s top management. On top of that, they sometimes do not even understand, whether the employees have the required skills and potential. Absence of a versatile assessment methodology as well as ambiguous criteria and standards of personnel evaluation significantly complicate talent acquisition process, especially when in comes to senior positions. Therefore, proper staff assessment and investment into talent pool development can improve the company’s efficiency and achieve the required performance indicators.It is evident that the current talent development system does not meet neither the requirements of the industry, nor the demands of the market. Thus, there is a call for a major change for a new educational model which will bring to the workplace an innovative manager. Taking this into account it appears that a thorough and rigorous research in the field of senior management training is necessary. It becomes particularly important if we look at the innovative sector where the efficiency of the innovative process depends of the professionalism of the management. The efficiency of the in-house talent training system is deeply rooted in the careful choice of methodological tools, used in line with the current trends in talent pool management. The choice of the model behind the company's in-house talent pool development program for management depends on the company’s structure, the complexity of the problems the team hap to solve and the workplace environment. The development of the KPI’s for the personnel and personnel audit, as well as the impact of these methodologies on the company’s performance and competitiveness are among the most urgent tasks in talent pool development.
Key words: human resources management, efficiency, organization, importance of human resources management, aspects of human resources management assessment, talent pool, KPI.
Rusakovich Maria Vladimirovna
PhD, Associate Professor; Associate Professor of the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: m_rusakovich@mail.ru

Malyutina Elena Lvovna
PhD in Pedagogy, Associate Professor;
Associate Professor of the Department of Management and Economics
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: ole_lykoe@mail.ru

Efficiency and Financial Results of the Company’s Business Activities: Methods of Evaluation and Analysis

Abstract. The article deals with issues related to the definition of criteria and indicators for assessing the performance and financial results of the organization, as well as methods of their evaluation and analysis. The performance indicators are classified according to different evaluation characteristics. Evaluation and analysis of the efficiency of the enterprise (organization) is a critical task for business and production departments of any company. The absence of a unified national methodology, which could help to analyze the activity of the enterprise leads to the fact that, despite the need for constant monitoring of the efficiency of the organization, the analysis is not mandatory and is conducted largely for the purposes of information only. In this matter, the Russian methodological framework for integrated assessment lags behind its Western counterpart: in many countries there are organizations that develop criteria for analysis, and software that allows you to determine the business activity and efficiency of any company in a few minutes. The development of evaluation criteria and standards can significantly influence the strategy of the organization, adjust work plans and predict the final financial result. It is noted that there is a need to distinguish between criteria and indicators for measuring business performance in general, i.e., aggregating indicators and criteria, and indicators for resource efficiency, which relate to private indicators. The choice of methodology for conducting an integrated assessment of the cost-effectiveness of an organization depends more on its functioning, as well as the objectives that need to be achieved in the analysis process. Different approaches to performance assessment allow for comprehensive analysis and identification of bottlenecks in the operation of the enterprise. Assess the production, financial and labor potential of the enterprise and determine the directions for optimizing the use of limited resources.
Keywords: Efficiency, criteria and indicators, integral indicators, financial indicators, profit, profitability.
Tagi-Zade Mansur Mamedovich
MA student of the Faculty of Economics at State University of Humanities and Social Studies; Chief Specialist at non-public joint stock company “PKB”
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: mansur.tagi-zade@yandex.ru

Aspects of Loan Recovery in Business Entities

Abstract. The article explores a wide range of issues related to the current situation on the bank lending market in Russia and the reasons for non-payments. The article begins with an outline of the current situation in Russia’s banking sector, with special emphasis being placed in the credit portfolios formed by the banks. After that the author of the article highlights some factors, which have а negative effect on the financial policy and the forms of state support, available. The author also gives an overview of the instruments that can ensure timely and full repayment of bank loans. It was noted that state intervention can be instrumental in mitigating the negative effects on the long-term lending market and its revival. Free cash shortage encourages companies to search for additional sources of financing. When choosing how to ensure repayment of loans, it is deemed reasonable to turn to either the most mechanisms available, or the ones that have a success story on the international banking market. It is also reasonable to consider a combination of available forms of loan security. Use of strategic management methods, competent and timely application of special measures can lead to a significant decrease in the share of overdue and troubled loans. At the same time, credit efficiency should be managed both at the macro- and microeconomic levels. A loan secured by receivables is one of the options for attracting working capital and continuing entrepreneurial activity. Today, credit on receivables is a much more important source of funds for enterprises than other sources. There are various reasons why this form is a more attractive source of financing. Money in exchange for receivables allows the customer to receive up to 80% of the value of due invoices in advance. Thus companies have an opportunity to conduct trading operations and develop business.
Keywords: loan portfolio, receivables, factoring, credit repayment, interest rate, credit market.


Dubova Marina Anatolyevna
PhD Habil, Associate Professor;
Professor at the Department of Russian Language and Literature
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: dubovama@rambler.ru

The Seme of "Divine" in the Protagonist’s Mental Discourse (A Case of Ivan Bunin’s Novel The Life of Arseniev)

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to address the aspects of functioning of the literary text from the cognitive perspective. Namely, the author of the article attempts to analyze the peculiarities of the mental activity of the protagonist in Ivan Bunin’s novel “The Life of Arseniev”. This in turn, presupposes a wide and consistent use of the metalanguage of cognitive linguistics, namely, the terms ‘concept’ and ‘linguistic persona’. At the core of the present study is the seme of “divine”, which can be safely called the landmark of Alesha Arseniev. It is something that defines the peculiarities of his mental activity and it is that seme that defines his world view.The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze the means of lexical representation of the seme "divine" in the novel. Using the methods of linguo-cognitive and linguostilistic analysis, the author of the article reveals the means of lexical representation of the seme of "divine" within the framework of mental activity of the protagonist’s lingusitic persona. It appears that this seme is closely connected to the concept of ‘soul’ and religious failth. The results of the study, show that the protagonist’s penchant for thinking about God determines his communicative strategies which directly depend on the predominance of emotional and sensory perception of reality. Thus a linguistic persona, the defining features of which become intravertness and gravitation to philosophical thoughts and generalizations, is created. At the same time, the features of the protagonist’s mental activity are determined by belonging to the historical era of the late XIX - early XX centuries, the ancient noble family, age, as well as individual personality traits, which allows us to conclude about the combination in his linguistic personality of typological and specifically individual traits that create its unique originality. The findings of the article can be used in university courses on stylistics, linguistic analysis and text theory.
Keywords: mental activity, seme of ‘divine’, linguistic persona, Ivan Bunin, ‘Life of Arseniev’.
Migdal Irina Yuryevna
PhD in Linguistics, Associate Professor; Associate Professor of the Department
of German and Romance Languages and Methods of Their Teaching
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: irinamigdal@gmail.com

Aspects of Meaning Transmission in Anthroponyms of Secondary Nomination

Abstract. The study of the specifics of the functioning of anthroponyms of the secondary nomination in fiction and its translation calls for attention to the role of the national worldview author of the work of fiction in question and the national worldview of the readership. The purpose of this article is to study the role of such onomastic units in the disclosure of cultural information about a certain linguistic and cultural community. Taking as a case example the novel ‘Boomsday’ by Christopher Buckley, we have considered 50 anthroponyms, which were used for the purposes of artistic expression in the original text of this satirical novel. Then, we identified the prevailing methods of translating these antroponyms into Russian and French, paying special attention to the cases of connotation mismatch in Russian and French translations of the novel. Particular attention was paid to the features of the perception of the cultural significance of onomastic units that are part of the national cognitive foundation for the representatives of American language culture, and the units that make up the communal communicative space of the novel’s readership. Among the variety of techniques for revealing the embedded cultural and associative significance of anthroponyms of the secondary nomination for such stylistic devises as antonomasia, authorial metaphors, metaphorical epithets, metonymy, we identified explication (in the form of a translation explanation or commentary) and a functional analogue. The results of the study show the importance of the cultural potential of proper noun to achieve the semantic equivalence for the translations of fiction. Further study of the features of the functioning of anthroponyms of the secondary nomination in original and translated fiction will allow us to identify onomastic units that form the basis of cultural literacy of the modern native speaker and the reader who is a speaker of a foreign language.
Keywords: anthroponyms of secondary nomination, cultural-associative meaning, translation.
Khomutskaya Natalya Ivanovna
PhD in Linguistics, Associate Professor; Chair of the Department of German and Romance Languages and Methods of Their Teaching
State University of Humanities and Social Studies, Kolomna, Russia
e-mail: irinamigdal@gmail.com

Corona-Zeit in Modern German Vocabulary

Abstract. The article in question focuses on the effects on German vocabulary caused by the new coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19).The subject of the study are the lexical units of German with the component "corona". Namely, their etymology, meaning, structure, sematics, metaphoricity and POS-function. Using the most recent field data, the author of the article attempted to show, how a new social phenomenon shapes the language and contributes to the formation of new lexical units, which in turn, thanks to the well developed word-formation system, leads to replenishment of the vocabulary of the modern German. The relevance of the study lies in the systematization of the field data and the identification of controversial points that determine the prospects for further research. The main methods of research employed for this study were the continuous sampling method of field data from German media, as well as the method of analysis and synthesis. The main results of the study include data on the POS-affiliation of the neologisms of the thematic group in question, the analysis of their semantic components and the discussion of various aspects of spelling. The results of the study can be used as illustrative material for lectures and workshops on lexicology and stylistics of German, as well as for optional courses on word-formation and replenishment of German vocabulary, practical courses of German, articles, papers and dissertations. Conclusions: the vocabulary of the modern German is a dynamically developing complex of lexical units with a flexible word formation system that allows displaying new phenomena of social development at the language level.
Keywords: "corona", word formation, vocabulary, ambiguity, POS affiliation, component composition, spelling.